Openness and transparency throughout the production chain plays an important role in modern, sustainable business practice. Such a philosophy naturally leads to a considered awareness of product and its origin.
You will find below a complete list of ingredients included in CSERA Complete Restore, the dose per serve, therapeutic benefits expected, and a selection of supportive clinical studies - often on the actual proprietary ingredient.
We have also included a list of suppliers by country. All of our partners are well established, work directly with providers of raw material, support peer reviewed clinical research, and have invested in industry leading technology.
Freshwater Collagen Peptides (France)
Dose per serve: 3500mg
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and makes up over 75% of total protein found in our connective tissues and skin. Type 1 collagen in particular plays an essential role in maintaining skin tone, suppleness, and elasticity. During our early twenties, natural collagen synthesis begins to decline at a rate faster than our bodies can reproduce it. By 45 years of age collagen levels have diminished by as much as a third, resulting in the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and dry skin.
CSERA Complete Restore contains Naticol® Premium Grade collagen – the most comprehensively researched collagen available on the market today. Our Type 1 collagen has featured in three clinical human studies, with the most recent published in 2018. Produced in France using high-quality sustainable raw materials (fish skins), and created using a patented method of enzymatic hydrolysis, Naticol® is the only ingestible collagen with a certified molecular weight below 2kDa - making it the most bioavailable and bioactive.
Several studies (including two conducted by Nice Hospital in France) have clinically demonstrated that regular intake of Naticol® Freshwater Collagen Peptides can safely improve skin moisture and elasticity, as well as reduce wrinkles (1,2,3). Naticol® collagen is bioavailable, meaning it is functionally absorbed, allowing the body to circulate the necessary amino acids used in collagen fibril synthesis – helping restore collagen levels and the appearance of youthfulness. Naticol® Freshwater Collagen Peptides may also promote antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, support wound repair (5), assist with joint health (6) and ease intestinal discomfort (7).
(1) Shinya K, Hisakazu M, Yasukazu S and Nobuhiko, M, ‘Fish collagen-containing drink is subcutaneously absorbed and attenuates the UVA-induced tissue integrity destruction and DNA damages in 3D-human skin tissue model’, Journal of Functional Foods, vol.3 (2011): 50-55.
(2) Evaluation of Naticol® (fish collagen peptides) on Japanese customer’s panel and evaluation of the anti-aging potential of Naticol® (Fish Collagen Peptides) on the ageing signs of the face of Asian volunteers, Study conducted by Just Research (Tokyo), Spring 2012.
(3) Duteil L et al., ‘Effect of low dose type I fish collagen peptides combined or not with silicon on skin aging signs in mature women,’, Juniper Online Journal of Case Studies, Published online March 23, 2018.
(4) Hamaia S, Meseguer J, Garcia-Ayala A, Farndale R and Mulero V, ‘A role for specific collagen motifs during wound healing and inflammatory response of fibroblasts in the teleost fish gilthead seabream’, Molecular Immunology, vol.48 (2011): 826 -834.
(5) Nakatani S, Mano H, Sampei C, Shimizu J, Wada M, 'Chondroprotective effect of the bioactive peptide prolyl hydroxyproline in mouse articular cartilage in vitro and in vivo', Osteortritis and Cartilage, vol.17 (2009): 1620-1627.
(6) 24-Week Study on the Use of Collagen Hydrolysate as a Dietary Supplement in Athletes with Activity-related Joint Pain. National Center for Biotechnology Information - U.S. National Library of Medicine (2008).
(7) Yamada S, et al. ‘Effects of fish collagen peptides on collagen post-translational modifications and mineralization in an osteoblastic cell culture system.’ Dental Materials Journal, vol.32,1 (2013): 88-95.
Nerina Strawberry Extract (Italy)
Dose per serve: 430mg
The Nerina Strawberry (Fragaria Nerina) is a wild black strawberry bought back from the verge of extinction by Iprona - an Italian company with over three decades of experience specialising in berry derived functional foods. Recognised as an industry innovator, Iprona has developed a proprietary solvent free extraction process (no chemicals or alcohol) that preserves the entire fruit matrix - leaving it bioavailable and more functionally absorbed than other isolated nutrient forms. In addition to significant investment in research and development, Iprona prides itself on working closely with Italian farmers to ensure a premium, safe and sustainable fruit supply.
Harvested exclusively for Iprona, the Nerina Strawberry has been cultivated specifically for its high level of Vitamin C – an essential vitamin that our bodies are unable to produce naturally. Vitamin C is found in high concentration in the dermis and epidermis layers of healthy skin. As we naturally age or are exposed to environmental pollutants and excessive UV light, these levels diminish (1,2). Encouragingly though, ingesting foods rich in Vitamin C has been shown to effectively replenish Vitamin C levels found in the hair and skin (3,4).
At a cellular level, Vitamin C supports healthy hair, skin and nails by functioning as a powerful anti-oxidant and acting as an essential precursor to collagen synthesis (5,6,7). Two recent human clinical studies have revealed that a higher dietary intake of Vitamin C is associated with an improvement in skin appearance and notable decrease in skin wrinkles (8). Unlike the synthesised or lab generated ascorbic acid found in traditional vitamin pills, the Vitamin C in our Nerina Strawberry Extract is delivered in a complex food form that your body already knows and understands.
(2) Rhie G, Shin MH, Seo JY, et al., ‘Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo.’, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 117 (2001): 1212-1217.
(3) Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, et al., ‘Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress.’, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol.43 (2007): 752-762.
(4) Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, et al., ‘Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane.’, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.127 (2007): 698-706.
(5) Peterkofsky B, ‘Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.54 (1991): 1135S-1140S.
(6) Geesin JC, Darr D, Kaufman R, Murad S, Pinnell SR, ‘Ascorbic acid specifically increases type I and type III procollagen messenger RNA levels in human skin fibroblast.’, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.90 (1988): 420-424.
(7) Cosgrove MC, Franco OH, Granger SP, Murray PG, Mayes AE., ‘Dietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women.’, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.86 (2007): 1225-1231.
Red Grape Skin Extract (France)
Dose per serve: 180mg
CSERA contains a unique Red Grape Skin extract developed by Grap’Sud, a French company located in the heart of the Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence vineyards of coastal Southern France. For more than half a century, the company has specialised in the extraction of grape polyphenols – micronutrients with anti-oxidant effects. Harvested and processed exclusively in the region using wine industry by-product, Grap’Sud has developed a natural extraction process that preserves the complete profile of red wine, with guaranteed polyphenol, anthocyanin and trans-resveratrol content.
As a class, red wine polyphenols (in particular resveratrol), are recognised as being some of the most potent dietary anti-oxidants known (1). Resveratrol is a phytochemical originating in the skin of red grapes, that for decades has been the focus of studies exploring anti-aging and longevity potential (2,3). In addition to functioning as a powerful anti-oxidant, resveratrol has been linked to a longer life-span through an ability to mimic the cellular activity of a calorie restrictive diet (4,5). Whilst the complexities of the compound are yet to be completely understood by science, there are clearly benefits to including this micronutrient in your diet; particularly in a non-isolated food form, like that found in CSERA Complete Restore.
Grap’Sud has been involved in ongoing research and development into resveratrol and what has become known as the ‘French Paradox’ since 2001. Our Red Grape Skin Extract has been studied in collaboration with the Medical School and the Nutrition Department of the University of Montpellier, in France, and is GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe) listed with the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. Grap’Sud have selected and tested more than 10 combinations of French red grapes (Syrah, Cabernet, Merlot, Carignan etc.) to create the safest and most effective blend of anthocyanins possible.
(3) Leighton F, Cuevas A, Guasch V et al., ‘Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study.’, Drugs Exp Clin Res, vol.25 (1999): 133–41.
Black Elderberry Extract (Italy)
Dose per serve: 180mg
Our Black Elderberry Extract is sourced in Italy from Iprona - the world´s largest supplier of Black Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra). Iprona has developed a patented membrane enrichment process to create stable polyphenol standardised extracts. This process is chemical and alcohol free, ensuring the entire fruit matrix is maintained, and nutrients are delivered in a form that your body recognises. Traceable to the field, our Haschberg variety of elderberry is sourced from a single region in Austria, then processed in Italy to a standardised anthocyanin content of 15mg per serve.
Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoid - the polyphenol sub-category responsible for giving berries their purple-blue hue. The more intense the colour, the more potent the compounds contained within the fruit. Anthocyanins have powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits that help protect cells and tissues from oxidative stress by acting to neutralise free oxygen radicals in the body (1,2). Anthocyanins have been studied for their ability to help protect against UV damage and photo-aging (5), and have been linked to a reduction of collagen breakdown through an ability to aid collagen synthesis (3).
Together with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, Black Elderberry contains minerals such as fibre, iron, folic acid, potassium, beta-carotene, manganese, and vitamins A, B6, and C. A recent study has found that elderberries may also facilitate skin health by improving the microcirculation of blood flow to our skin – helping maintain elasticity and fullness, and reducing the appearance of fine-lines and wrinkles (4,5).
(3) Sidor A, Gramza-Michałowska A, ‘Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review’, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol.53, 6 (2009): 726-38
(5) Wallace TC, Giusti MM, Rojo LE, Roopchand DE, Graf B, Cheng DM, Ribnicky D, Fridlender B, Raskin I, ‘Role of anthocyanins in skin aging and UV-induced skin damage.’, in Anthocyanins in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; (2013).
Freshwater Micro Algae as Astaxanthin (Sweden)
Dose per serve: 120mg (equiv. to 3mg of active astaxanthin)
Highly concentrated in Freshwater Micro Algae, astaxanthin is a naturally occurring pigment known as a carotenoid. This unique phytonutrient works as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory with clinically validated skin health and anti-aging benefits. CSERA Complete Restore contains AstraREAL® astaxanthin – AstraREAL® pioneered the cultivation of natural algae astaxanthin three decades ago, and is recognised as the gobal leader in clean-supply astaxanthin. Grown and processed exclusively in Sweden using a proprietary indoor cultivation method, the Freshwater Micro Algae contained in CSERA has featured in over 70 clinical studies.
AstraREAL® astaxanthin provides a highly effective defence against oxidative stress, which has a direct impact on damaging cellular inflammation and the inflammatory process. Skin is under constant attack from free radicals produced by UV rays, environmental pollutants, stress, and poor nutrition. The oxidative damage caused by these free radicals is a major cause of aging. Taken as an oral supplement, Freshwater Micro Algae as Astaxanthin has been shown to provide protection from UV damage (1), reduce wrinkles and smooth skin (2,3), improve skin moisture retention (4) and reduce the size of age spots (5).
Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that allows it to reside in the cell membrane; protecting the inside and outside of cells from free radical attack (6). It has an impact on every cell in the body, resulting in wide-ranging benefits that affect much more than the skin. Research has shown neurovascular, cardiovascular and muscular benefits (7). Healthy skin after all, is a reflection of total wellness. AstraREAL® astaxanthin is produced in a hydro powered facility using fully enclosed biosystems designed for maximum control, and is guaranteed free of impurities or environmental contaminants.
(1) Suganuma K, et al., ‘Anti-aging and functional improvement effects for the skin by functional foods intake : clinical effects on skin by oral ingestion of preparations containing Astaxanthin and Vitamins C and E.’, Jichi Medical University Journal, vol.35 (2012): 25-33.
Grape Seed Extract (France)
Dose per serve: 40mg
Produced in Southern France by Grap’Sud, our Grape Seed Extract is obtained through a natural extraction process that preserves the active anti-oxidative properties of the seed without need for a carrier. Traceable from vine to finished product, our seeds come from grapes sourced exclusively from the Champagne wine region of France. This high-quality raw material is then standardised to guaranteed polyphenol and oligomeric procyanidin content.
Highly concentrated in grape seed, oligomeric procyanidins (or OPCs) are phenolic compounds with exceptional anti-oxidant properties. Anti-free radical activity (measured through ORAC value) is significantly more potent in our Grape Seed Extract when compared to those found in even Vitamin E and C - two of the most powerful and soundly researched skincare ingredients to date. The exceptional anti-oxidant capacity of Grape Seed Extract and OPCs has been shown to help protect against oxidative stress (1), tissue damage (2) and inflammation (3).
(3) Cádiz-Gurrea ML, et al., ‘Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.’, International Journal of Molecular Science, vol.10 18(2) (2017) E376.
Sakura Extract (Japan)
Dose per serve: 30mg
Cherry blossoms, known as Sakura in Japan, are the edible delicate pink flowers produced by the cherry blossom tree. In Asia, the association of Sakura with beauty and mortality can be traced back for centuries. Recent studies have validated these beliefs, with the extract of Sakura flower shown to contain potent bioactive compounds beneficial to the skin, healthy aging and longevity (1). The Sakura Extract contained in CSERA is sourced from Oryza - a Japanese nutraceutical company founded almost a century ago, that today operates state-of-the-art facilities with the highest standards of product purity and safety.
Glycation is the process by which a protein molecule harmfully crosslinks with a sugar molecule. Glycation creates toxic inflammatory pigments known as advanced glycation end products or AGEs. AGEs speed up oxidative damage (especially to connective tissue such as collagen and elastin), and have been linked to the cosmetic signs of aging and the progression of age related disease (2,3). Glycation of collagen and elastin in skin causes the accumulation of AGEs, inducing skin damage and a hardening of the collagen network, eventually leading to the death of collagen fibroblasts (4).
Several in vitro studies have shown Oryza Sakura Extract to possess an anti-glycation affect through an ability to reduce AGE production and the loss of skin fibroblast cells needed for collagen formation (4). A double-blind placebo controlled human clinical trial has also been undertaken by Oryza to evaluate the effect on skin appearance and beauty. The results of the study found that sakura extract reduced skin AGEs, suppressed loss of elasticity, reduced pigmentation and redness, aided moisture retention and improved smoothness of the skin.
(1) Shimoda H, et al., ‘Effect of cinnamoyl and flavonol glucosides derived from cherry blossom flowers on the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGE-induced fibroblast apoptosis.’, Phytotherapy Research, vol.25 4 (2011): 1328-1335.
(4) Alikhani Z, et al., ‘Advanced glycation end products enhance expression of pro-apoptotic genes and stimulate fibroblast apoptosis through cytoplasmic and mitochondrial pathways.’, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280 (2005): 12087–12095.
Rice Extract as Ceramide (Japan)
Dose per serve: 15mg
Ceramides are naturally occurring lipids (fats) found in the outermost layer of the skin. They are essential for skin hydration and moisture retention, protection against UV radiation and harmful external agents, and overall dermal health. A gradual reduction in ceramide content in the skin occurs as we age, resulting in less hydrated skin and the appearance of fine-lines and wrinkles. Each serve of CSERA contains 15mg of Ceramide-PCD® - a phytoceramide and highly concentrated source of glucosylceramides. Backed by two decades of clinical trials, Ceramide-PCD® Rice Extract from Oryza has been sold as a potent cosmeceutical in Japan since 2001.
The outer most layer of the epidermis is made up of skin cells and the connecting lipids that hold skin together. As skin ages or is exposed to UV and environmental pollutants, lipids (made up of 50% ceramides) break down. As ceramide levels diminish, the integrity of the skin barrier becomes compromised - leading to a loss of moisture and visible damage from environmental stressors (1). Dehydration as a result of depleted skin ceramides leads to dry, rough, wrinkled and irritated skin (2). As most foods do not contain ceramides, the safest and most effective way to combat this aging process is to supplement with high quality phytoceramides from plants.
Oryza Rice Extract has been clinically proven to replenish ceramide levels – improving the health and appearance of skin, and restoring its protective outer barrier (3). In a double-blind placebo controlled study conducted with the Institute of General Medicine Sciences in Japan, Ceramide-PCD® Rice Bran Extract was taken orally for six weeks. Subjective and objective dermatological analysis of the epidermis showed that the supplement reduced roughness and wrinkles, improved smoothness and enhanced moisture retention of the skin.
(1) Vollmer DL, et al., ‘Enhancing Skin Health: By Oral Administration of Natural Compounds and Minerals with Implications to the Dermal Microbiome.’, International Journal of Molecular Science, vol.19 10 (2018): 3059.
(3) Clinical Investigation of Skin-beautifying Effect of a Beauty Supplement Containing Rice-Derived Ceramide:Objective Evaluation by Microscopic Three-dimensional Imaging Analysis in Dry Skin. Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co., Institute of General Medicine Science Japan (2000).
Tuna Elastin Peptides (Japan)
Dose per serve: 15mg
Elastin is a structural protein found in the dermis layer of the skin. It serves to reinforce the bonds between collagen fibres, providing firmness and elasticity to the skin (1). CSERA contains Elastin-HS1® from Hagoromo Japan - a rare form of hydrolysed elastin extracted from the hearts of tuna. Hagoromo has been supplying tuna and tuna products since 1931, and Tuna Elastin Peptides as a unique and potent cosmeceutical since 2003.
As we age, naturally and through exposure to UV radiation and environmental pollutants, less elastin is synthesised by the body, causing the elastin content of the skin dermal tissue to diminish. As a consequence, collagen (90% of which is found in dermal cells) loses its structural support - wrinkles, sagging skin and cellular aging are the result (2). Replenishing these supportive elastin structures gives strength and flexibility to collagen fibres, which in turn firms the appearance of skin (3). Additional clinical research is warranted, but studies to date strongly suggest ingestion of tuna elastin improves skin appearance, elasticity, wrinkle visibility, and blood flow (4).
(3) Shiratsuchi E, et al., ‘Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.’, Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, vol.96 5 (2016): 1672-1677.
Adour and Kin
Based in Melbourne, Australia
Founded in 2018
All product made in Australia by Adour and Kin.
Labels and carton and made and printed in Australia on cotton paper made in Italy. Amber jars are made in Japan to our specifications.
Based in Graulhet, France
Founded in 1839
Raw Material Supplied - Naticol® Freshwater Collagen Peptides
Based in Languedoc-Roussillon, France
Founded in 1969
Raw Material Supplied - exGrape Total 2500® (Red Grape Skin Extract) + OPC20® (Grape Seed Extract)
Based in Lana, Italy
Founded in 1981
Raw Material Supplied - Berrypharma® Nerina Strawberry Extract + Berrypharma® Black Elderberry Extract (Eldercraft®)
Based in Tokyo, Japan
Founded in 1939
Raw Material Supplied - Ceramide-PCD® (Rice Extract) + Sakura (Cherry Blossom) Extract
Based in Shizuoka, Japan
Founded in 1931
Raw Material Supplied - Elastin-HS1® (Tuna Elastin Peptides)
Based in Stockholm, Sweden
Founded in 1946
Raw Material Supplied - Astaxanthin EL25® (Fresh Water Micro Algae)